As Africa’s most populous country, largest economy, and biggest democracy, Nigeria is a bellwether for the continent. National and state elections in 2019 were deeply competitive, with scattered instances of violence amid a mostly peaceful process. However, historically low voter turnout signals a deepening distrust in government and institutions. Overall, Nigeria has made major strides in its democratic development, but still has significant work to do in improving national, state, and local governance.


Nigeria’s federal system gives governors great responsibilities in addressing the issues that are driving conflict and the Boko Haram insurgency. USIP brings together state governors and civic leaders to design and implement inclusive policies that mitigate violence and strengthen community-oriented security. The Institute engages a variety of influential figures, empowers citizens, and uses its expertise and convening power to inform Nigeria policy in the U.S., the region, and around the world. Recent work includes:

Nigeria Working Group on Peacebuilding and Governance

The Working Group fosters relationships between citizens, governors, and national and international figures to ensure a diverse array of voices impact decision-making processes. These relationships allow the Working Group to turn expert analysis—such as a recent Special Report that examines changes in political and conflict conditions since 2015—into tangible, actionable recommendations. The analysis from our recent Special Report informed key stakeholders’ strategies for preventing violence throughout the 2019 election season.

Strengthening Local Security

USIP’s Justice and Security Dialogue project in Nigeria improves local, state, and national-level institutions’ ability to manage local conflict through supporting dialogues and activities that bring security and justice providers together with communities impacted by violence. The approach promotes mutual understanding, knowledge-sharing, and trust among participants, and results in better informed decision-makers, more effective and accountable security forces, and citizens who are active in the safety of their own community.

Network of Nigerian Facilitators

Community facilitators trained by USIP are holding dialogues in six states throughout the country. Dialogues focused on preventing election-related violence—including during the post-election transition period—as well as strengthening community-security relationships and other conflicts that facilitators identify as having the potential to lead to violence.

Working with State Governments and Peacebuilding Institutions

USIP helps governors and state peacebuilding institutions leverage their influence and networks to establish inclusive, cooperative strategies that prevent and resolve violent conflict, ensure policies focus on citizens’ needs, and stem the potential for electoral violence as well as play meaningful roles in the transition process.

Civilian-led Security and Governance

USIP conducted research on the transition to civilian-led security and governance in northeast Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin in the aftermath of the Boko Haram insurgency. USIP experts suggested replacing military forces with police officers—increasing both the size and capacity of the police as part of the process—and creating a formal interagency cooperation mechanism dedicated to community stabilization. In 2019, USIP will convene newly elected and re-elected politicians to discuss the findings and incorporate the recommendations in their security plans.

Researching Community Resilience to Violence

With USIP’s support, the Centre for Information Technology and Development examined the factors that make certain communities in northeast Nigeria more resistant to violence. The research showed that resilience thrives when there is a robust community platform for active citizen participation and democratic decision-making.

Convening Power

  • In 2015, USIP hosted President Muhammadu Buhari in his first visit to the U.S. after his election. During his address, he stressed zero tolerance for corruption and pledged to restore trust in the country’s governance.
  • Former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo spoke at USIP just weeks after that historic 2015 election, discussing Africa’s potential to overcome its leadership challenges.
  • USIP hosted 11 state governors in 2016 for a symposium on developing inclusive strategies to address the drivers of violent extremism in Nigeria.
  • In 2017, USIP brought together a gathering of eminent Nigerian civic leaders in Washington, D.C. for discussions with U.S. policymakers, including former Undersecretary of State Tom Shannon, about the prospects for durable peace in Nigeria and the broader Lake Chad Basin area.
  • USIP convenes government officials, stakeholders, and organizations in both Washington and Nigeria to develop insights and collaborate on projects such as the premiere of “Boko Haram: Journey From Evil,” a documentary on resilience and hope in northeast Nigeria as the region faced the insurgency.

Related Publications

COVID-19 and Conflict: Nigeria

COVID-19 and Conflict: Nigeria

Thursday, May 28, 2020

By: Oge Onubogu

As Africa’s most populous democracy and largest economy, Nigeria’s ability to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus within its own borders has broader implications for the entire continent. Meanwhile, the virus threatens to exacerbate the country’s existing security challenges, which in turn make an effective pandemic response more difficult. In this #COVIDandConflict video, our Oge Onubogu looks at how the Nigerian government has addressed the virus and what potential takeaways the response to COVID-19 could have for tackling the country’s epidemic of violence.

Type: Blog

Global Health

Nigeria: The Response to Coronavirus is an Opportunity for Reform

Nigeria: The Response to Coronavirus is an Opportunity for Reform

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

By: Nigeria Working Group on Peacebuilding and Governance

Well before the coronavirus emerged, a large majority of Nigerians felt their country was “going in the wrong direction.” Polling shows Nigerians feel the government has struggled to improve the living standards of the poor and is managing the economy badly. Today, while the public health response to head off the pandemic dominates attention, calls from prominent members of Nigerian civil society have renewed debates over wider questions of economic, social, and political reform. In this article, members of the Nigeria Working Group on Peacebuilding and Governance express both their hopes and concerns—in the context of the coronavirus—for Africa’s most populous country.

Type: Analysis and Commentary

Democracy & Governance; Global Health

Nigeria Should Build Peace Like it Fights Coronavirus

Nigeria Should Build Peace Like it Fights Coronavirus

Monday, April 6, 2020

By: Oge Onubogu

Nigerian leaders struggling to reduce violence in the country’s myriad conflicts should take some lessons—from their own response to the coronavirus. While Nigeria’s COVID-19 ordeal is still unfolding, its eventual casualties unknown, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) and several governors have modeled the ways to reduce catastrophic outbreaks. The simple existence of a national prevention center with sustained resources has proven critical. Key officials have applied vital principles, acting at the first sign of danger and keeping the public widely informed. These are precisely the ways to confront Nigeria’s other national plague—of violence.

Type: Analysis and Commentary

Fragility & Resilience; Peace Processes; Global Health

Four Lessons from Outbreaks in Africa for the Age of Coronavirus

Four Lessons from Outbreaks in Africa for the Age of Coronavirus

Monday, March 30, 2020

By: Aly Verjee

As the coronavirus pandemic continues and new behavioral practices—from social distancing to avoiding handshakes and hugs—become expected norms overnight, there are crucial policy lessons to be learned from struggles against previous outbreaks of disease in Africa. Despite widespread poverty, weak infrastructure, and relatively few health professionals, there is an encouraging, long record of African countries—often with significant international assistance and cooperation—eventually managing to overcome dire health challenges. For non-African countries already facing large numbers of COVID-19 infections, as well as for African countries where the epidemic is now at an early stage, policymakers would do well to recall these four lessons of past epidemics—of both what to do and, perhaps almost as importantly, what not to do to confront this global threat.

Type: Analysis and Commentary

Global Health; Human Rights

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