Twenty years after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the country’s path toward stability and democracy remains perilous. In the last two decades, Iraq has been plagued by insurgencies, the Islamic State, political gridlock, Iran’s meddling and economic crises, among other things. Despite this, Iraq has managed to hold together, and the country’s story is still unfolding. Stephen J. Hadley, former national security advisor under President George W. Bush and former chair of USIP’s Board of Directors, reflects on the invasion of Iraq two decades later. Speaking with USIP President and CEO Lise Grande, Hadley discusses why he believes the invasion was “a war of last resort,” why there is still a role for the United States to play in the Middle East today despite shortfalls in the post-war period, and whether the United States would have still gone to war had it known how the war would unfold.