Reconciliation is the long-term process that helps conflict parties build trust, learn to live together cooperatively, and create a stable peace. But what makes reconciliation genuinely transformative? This report draws on a qualitative analysis of 20 prominent reconciliation processes and interviews with experts who guided them to identify the qualities that made the processes successful. The report‘s insights and recommendations can help governments, multilateral organizations, and nongovernmental actors develop more responsive and responsible reconciliation initiatives.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated in 2020 that the effects of climate change are already a reality, especially in cities, where they have “caused impacts on human health, livelihoods and key infrastructure.” Climate stresses like heat waves, floods, air pollution, and storms have the potential to exacerbate political tension and fuel violence in urban settings. To address these dynamics, this report discusses what climate change practitioners can learn from the peacebuilding field to help cities adapt more effectively to the coming climate crisis.
Beijing has made support for the development of African nations’ space programs a key incentive for the continent to form closer ties with China. By contrast, although US federal agencies and universities are actively involved in research partnerships with some African countries, space technology has not been a focus of US foreign policy in Africa. This report provides an overview of China’s partnerships with Africa’s space programs and offers recommendations for boosting US engagement to advance shared diplomatic, economic, and security objectives.
Between 1961 and 1971, US forces sprayed an estimated 12 million gallons of Agent Orange in Vietnam. The effects remain one of the most contentious legacies of the Vietnam War. This report focuses on the hardships faced by Vietnamese people living with Agent Orange–related health problems and disabilities and suggests ways the US and Vietnamese governments can better address the legacy of Agent Orange to provide support to individuals and families, and to strengthen bilateral relations.
Addressing war legacies is a top priority for both the US and Vietnamese governments, although cooperation on the impacts of Agent Orange took more than 20 years to develop. This report reviews the history of that cooperation and examines assistance for those affected by Agent Orange, including families and caregivers, in Vietnam. The report identifies a need for comprehensive nonmedical support and offers recommendations to better address this need and further develop bilateral trust and respect.
As China has become a more powerful and influential actor—economically, politically, and militarily—it has demonstrated growing interest in playing a larger role in international conflict prevention and influencing established norms. This report examines Beijing’s approaches and efforts in this area, focusing on three case studies: funding projects through the UN, “Sinocentric” regional organizations, and ties with Solomon Islands. The report finds that China’s efforts around conflict prevention have a coherence that requires a similarly coherent response from the United States.
One way the Communist Party of China seeks to increase the uptake of its norms, values, and institutional practices in Africa is by providing professional education and training opportunities to African military officers. In addition to promoting China’s governance models, these programs have graduates in top leadership positions across the continent, including presidencies and numerous top defense roles. This report urges US and Western policymakers to counter this influence by providing more opportunities for African officers to train in Western military institutions.
Countries as geographically diverse as Honduras, Jordan, and Pakistan are experiencing a common challenge—rapid growth in urban populations as conflict and climate-induced disasters push people from rural areas into cities. This report examines the effects of this increased urban migration on both the migrants and the urban environment, as well as the challenges policymakers face. It offers recommendations to help meet the needs of growing urban populations and develop adaptive, resilient systems to better withstand the impacts of climate change and conflict.
When the Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 2021, counterterrorism experts were alarmed at the possible resurgence of Islamist terrorist groups within the country. This Special Report lays out why those concerns, particularly about the regional Islamic State affiliate known as Islamic State Khorasan Province (ISKP), were well-founded. The report discusses the likely trajectory of ISKP’s activities in South Asia and recommends measures to minimize potential threats to the West and build regional resilience to extremism.
Nonviolent action can be a powerful way to bring about peaceful transitions from autocratic rule to democracy. But even when initially successful, movement leaders often face significant challenges, from frustrations that grievances are not addressed quickly enough to counterrevolutions aimed at restoring the authoritarian status quo. This report examines two recent transitions—the 2011 Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia and Armenia’s 2018 Velvet Revolution—and presents recommendations for improving the likelihood that change initiated through nonviolent action leads to robust and lasting democracy.