The United States is interested in encouraging the development of stable, democratic systems, and market economies in new countries such as Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan, and to minimize the social, ethnic, religious and other sources of conflict that could destabilize the region further. But increasingly, effectiveness in these efforts will depend as much on the views from below as from policies promulgated from above.
The end of the Cold War seemed to portend a decline in Turkey's strategic importance to the West; however, the political changes in the world since 1989 have also loosened the constraints within which Turkey can act. As a result, Ankara's foreign policy has been redirected from its strictly western orientation to one in which the countries of the Middle East have become potentially more significant.
Commissions of Inquiry: Commissions of Inquiry into the Involuntary Removal or Disappearance of Persons Duration: 1995 – 2000 Charter: Presidential Proclamations Commissioners: 3 for each commission (in total 11 commissioners) Report: Public reports
Before 1994, Rwanda was the most densely populated country in continental Africa. Between April and August 1994, that statistic shifted radically, as Rwanda lost 20 percent to 40 percent of its population to slaughter or exile.
The situation on the Korean Peninsula reached a possible turning point on July 8, 1994, with the death of North Korea's eighty-two year-old president, Kim Il Sung. The passing of the North's founder and only leader of the Communist State had been predicted for years as an event that could open new possibilities for dramatic change on the Korean Peninsula. The United States, South Korea, and North Korea's other neighbors face significant challenges in determining policy adjustments that might...
The failure of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Somalia (UNOSOM II) to build a new state in that war-ravaged country, after the costly U.S. military intervention is often viewed as a critical lesson about the problems associated with the international community's attempts to resolve conflict in Africa. Thus, when genocidal strife erupted in Rwanda in 1994, causing millions of Rwandans to flee into neighboring countries, there was a strong reluctance to allow U.S. forces to become e...
The emergence of a new Russia--a post-communist European state with a vast store of nuclear arms--raises many complex questions. What kind of foreign and defense policies will Russian pursue into the 21st century? What will be the impact of the loss of the former empire? And what are the implications for western policymakers?
The Role of Mediation and Good Offices
By 1992, starvation, disease, and death had engulfed Somalia and its people. Plagued by the violence of civil war, Somalia had become a country with few resources and great despair—electricity, communications, transportation, health services, and food were all in short supply.
The end of the Cold War has brought an apparent decline in the importance of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), a forum known primarily for its struggle against human rights violations in the countries of the former eastern bloc.