USIP seeks to fill the gap in information regarding communal conflicts and locally driven peace initiatives across Nigeria by publishing an annual State of Peace in Nigeria (SOPN) report. While measuring violence is relatively straightforward, defining what peace means to ordinary Nigerians has been largely overlooked — even though such definitions may be more meaningful.

Saadia, who was six months pregnant, outlines to Judge Alkali Laouali Ismaël, left, her reasons for wanting a divorce, in Maradi, Niger, April 4, 2017.
(Laura Boushnak/The New York Times)

By exploring more nuanced understandings of peace, examining how they vary between and across communities, and finding which indicators of peace are most valued, peace might be better pursued. USIP launched the SOPN research project in 2021.