The Comprehensive Peace Agreement installed an interim constitution for Sudan and Southern Sudan.  In the wake of South Sudan's secession, both countries are undertaking constitutional review processes, although the endeavors have suffered from lack of inclusivity, transparency, participation, and political will, leaving north and south without permanent constitutions to guide their national policies.

20160328-UNMISS-South-Sudan-Flickr
Photo Courtesy of Flickr/UNMISS

Sudan

Sudan currently operates under an Interim National Constitution, which needs to be replaced following South Sudan’s secession.  While the need for a permanent constitution is widely acknowledged, little is known about how the government will conduct such an exercise - who will be included? How widely will the public be consulted?  How long will the process take?  What issues will be on the table?

In 2011, USIP began convening Sudanese civil society organizations from the 15 states to discuss how civil society might mobilize itself to increase its voice in the anticipated constitutional review.  This effort led to the creation of the Sudanese Initiative for Constitution-Making (SICM), a network of more than 40 nongovernmental organizations.  Presently, USIP is supporting SICM to:

  1. Conduct projects and engage in outreach activities to educate the public and the international community about constitutions, constitutionalism, and the importance of engaging in the constitution-making process.
  2. Provide policy options to the Government of Sudan to design and implement an inclusive, participatory, and transparent constitution-making process.

Learn more about the Sudanese Initiative for Constitution-Making >>

South Sudan

On the verge of independence, South Sudan amended its interim constitution and accepted a transitional constitution to support the rights, duties, powers, and institutions of a sovereign state.  After independence, South Sudan pledged to undertake a second constitutional review -- one that is expected to be longer in duration, more comprehensive in scope, and more inclusive and participatory in nature.  

Although South Sudan's constitutional review has stalled, USIP is closely monitoring developments and actively seeking opportunities to support the Government of South Sudan in designing and implementing a constitution-making process that is inclusive, participatory, and transparent so as to achieve a permanent constitution that is deemed legitimate in the eyes of the South Sudanese people and contributes to South Sudan's development of democracy, constitutionalism, and the rule of law.
 

<< Back to Constitution Making and Rule of Law in the Two Sudans

Related Publications

China’s Response to Sudan’s Political Transition

China’s Response to Sudan’s Political Transition

Friday, May 8, 2020

By: Laura Barber

Sudan's decades-long economic relationship with China has almost always been dominated by oil. Yet this relationship has changed significantly in the past decade—first with the loss of oil reserves when South Sudan became an independent nation in 2011, and more recently due to the ouster of longtime ally President Omar al-Bashir. This report, based on interviews with policy officials, diplomats, industry and security experts, and others, examines China’s evolving commercial and political interests in this vital nation in the Horn of Africa.

Type: Special Report

Conflict Analysis & Prevention

Sudan, One Year After Bashir

Sudan, One Year After Bashir

Friday, May 1, 2020

By: Manal Taha; Payton Knopf; Aly Verjee

Dictator Omar al-Bashir, who ruled Sudan for nearly three decades, was overthrown in April 2019. After months of protests, negotiations led to a joint civilian-military transitional government to govern the country for a period of 39 months. However, Sudan’s political transition remains tenuous, and even before the coronavirus pandemic, the risks of failure were many. USIP’s Manal Taha, Payton Knopf, and Aly Verjee discuss the past year in Sudan and the need for further international support to shore up the transition.

Type: Analysis and Commentary

Democracy & Governance; Global Health

COVID-19 and Conflict: Horn of Africa

COVID-19 and Conflict: Horn of Africa

Thursday, April 30, 2020

By: Susan Stigant

USIP is closely following the effects of the novel coronavirus around the world and we’re particularly concerned about its effects in fragile states and conflict zones, which are especially vulnerable to the impacts of these kinds of outbreaks. This week, our Susan Stigant looks at what new challenges have emerged in the Horn of Africa since the outbreak began.

Type: Blog

Global Health

Four Lessons from Outbreaks in Africa for the Age of Coronavirus

Four Lessons from Outbreaks in Africa for the Age of Coronavirus

Monday, March 30, 2020

By: Aly Verjee

As the coronavirus pandemic continues and new behavioral practices—from social distancing to avoiding handshakes and hugs—become expected norms overnight, there are crucial policy lessons to be learned from struggles against previous outbreaks of disease in Africa. Despite widespread poverty, weak infrastructure, and relatively few health professionals, there is an encouraging, long record of African countries—often with significant international assistance and cooperation—eventually managing to overcome dire health challenges. For non-African countries already facing large numbers of COVID-19 infections, as well as for African countries where the epidemic is now at an early stage, policymakers would do well to recall these four lessons of past epidemics—of both what to do and, perhaps almost as importantly, what not to do to confront this global threat.

Type: Analysis and Commentary

Global Health; Human Rights

View All Publications