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War Crimes

Crimes committed during armed conflict in violation of the laws of war or international humanitarian law, described more fully in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, article 8.


Lists of countries at risk for specific concerns, maintained by government agencies or nongovernmental organizations as early-warning mechanisms.

Whole-of-Government Approach

An approach that integrates the collaborative efforts of the departments and agencies of a government to achieve unity of effort toward a shared goal. Also known as interagency approach.

Win-win versus Zero-sum

A win-win or positive-sum outcome means everyone wins, usually through cooperation and joint problem solving.

Window of Opportunity

A short period of time during which the chances of success in an endeavor are greatly increased.

World Bank

According to the World Bank website, the term “World Bank” refers only to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA).