The use of violence, typically against civilians, for the purpose of attracting attention to a political cause, encouraging others to join in, or intimidating opponents into concessions.
An individual or group that gets involved to help disputants resolve their problem, typically as mediators, arbitrators, or conciliators.
Time management in a post-conflict environment is often affected by attitudes or values not always shared by westerners, such as a need to cultivate personal relationships before completing a task, a
Formal discussions typically involving high-level political and military leaders and focusing on cease-fires, peace talks, and treaties and other agreements.
Unofficial dialogue and problem-solving activities aimed at building relationships and encouraging new thinking that can inform the formal process.
People-to-people diplomacy undertaken by individuals and private groups to encourage interaction and understanding between hostile communities and involving awareness raising and empowerment within th
Over the years, scholars have delineated several levels of diplomacy. Tracks I and II are the most frequently used terms. A composite term is multitrack diplomacy.
Efforts to address a legacy of large-scale human rights abuses that cannot be fully addressed by existing judicial and nonjudicial structures.
Translation refers to the production of a written text in another language, while interpreting refers to oral or sign-language communication. Both require skilled professionals, since cultural
Actors whose actions cross borders.
Visibility or accessibility of information regarding decision-making and financial practices, such that stakeholders not only have access to the decision-making process but also the ability to influen
A formal and mutually binding written agreement between two or more states or other political authorities. Treaties are usually ratified by the lawmaking authority of the state.
In international law, this term is sometimes used for courts set up for special purposes, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda or the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Y
An event that initiates or accelerates the outbreak of a conflict (for example, the assassination of a leader, election fraud, or a political scandal).
An official body, usually set up by states after periods of state-perpetrated violence, whose main task is to establish a record of wrongdoing as part of an overall process of catharsis and reconcilia