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The use of violence, typically against civilians, for the purpose of attracting attention to a political cause, encouraging others to join in, or intimidating opponents into concessions.

Third Party

An individual or group that gets involved to help disputants resolve their problem, typically as mediators, arbitrators, or conciliators.

Time, Attitudes toward

Time management in a post-conflict environment is often affected by attitudes or values not always shared by westerners, such as a need to cultivate personal relationships before completing a task,

Tracks of Diplomacy

Traditionally, the term "diplomacy" referred to interaction between nation-states. More recently, however, scholars have delineated several levels of diplomacy.

Transitional Justice

Efforts to address a legacy of large-scale human rights abuses that cannot be fully addressed by existing judicial and nonjudicial structures.

Translation versus Interpreting

Translation refers to the production of a written text in another language, while interpreting refers to oral or sign-language communication. Both require skilled professionals, since cultural


Visibility or accessibility of information regarding decision-making and financial practices, such that stakeholders not only have access to the decision-making process but also the ability to infl


A formal and mutually binding written agreement between two or more states or other political authorities. Treaties are usually ratified by the lawmaking authority of the state.


In international law, this term is sometimes used for courts set up for special purposes, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda or the International Criminal Tribunal for the forme


An event that initiates or accelerates the outbreak of a conflict (for example, the assassination of a leader, election fraud, or a political scandal).