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Early Warning

The assessment of high-risk situations so as to provide timely notice of escalating violence.


The process by which citizens typically choose their representatives to the legislature and sometimes to the executive and judiciary branches.

Eminent Persons

A group of distinguished and well-respected individuals typically gathered together for a specific task, such as the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations–Civil Society Relations, the OSCE Pan

Environmental Security

A relatively new field that focuses on the connections among environment, resources, security, conflict, and peacemaking.


An increase in intensity or scope of a conflict. The number of parties tends to increase, as does the number and breadth of the issues.


The principles of conduct—right and wrong behavior—governing an individual or a group.

Ethnic Cleansing

Deliberate, organized, and usually violent expulsion of people from an area on the basis of their perceived ethnic, communal, sectarian, or religious identity.


The systematic collection and analysis of data on a program, both as to the process and outputs (materials and activities) and the impact or outcome (immediate and longer term effects).