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The notion that individuals, including public officials, should be held responsible for their actions.

Active Listening

A way of listening that focuses on both the content of statements or responses in a dialogue and the underlying emotions.


In international relations, adjudication involves the referral of a dispute to an impartial third-party tribunal—normally either an international court or an arbitration tribunal—for a

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

In general, ADR refers to an approach to the resolution of conflicts that does not involve litigation and seeks an outcome at least minimally satisfactory to all parties concerned.


A form of international adjudication that involves the referral of a dispute or disputes to an ad hoc tribunal—rather than to a permanently established court—for binding decision.

Arms control

A process of cooperation among states aimed at reducing the likelihood or scope of military action by adopting reciprocal measures to assure against surprise attack, to limit deployments, or to red


In describing relationships, asymmetry refers to a situation where one person or party has more power or leverage than another.


Literally meaning self-government, autonomy was traditionally considered synonymous with self-determination and sometimes with sovereignty.