In November 2008, operatives from the Lashkar-e-Taiba carried out 12 coordinated terrorist attacks across Mumbai, killing 164 and wounding over 300. The days following the attacks saw tensions rise between India and Pakistan. War clouds hovered over South Asia for weeks before the crisis abated, in part due to U.S. mediation.

Since the Mumbai crisis, India-Pakistan tensions have simmered, with violence levels on the Line of Control in Kashmir being at their highest since a cease-fire was agreed on in 2003. While no terrorist attacks on the scale of Mumbai have occurred since 2008, terrorism remains an ever-present danger and mutual mistrust among regional states continues to make its resolution difficult. Now, transnational groups like Daesh and rejuvenated ones like al-Qaida in South Asia further complicate the terrorist landscape.

What lessons do India and Pakistan seem to have learned from the Mumbai experience? Are India and Pakistan better prepared to deal with terrorism jointly and/or separately? Is crisis management between the two easier or tougher than a decade ago? Is elimination of terrorism from the region possible in the foreseeable future? To reflect on these questions and the future of terrorism in the region, USIP hosted a panel discussion on Tuesday, November 27th from 2:00pm – 3:30pm. Take part in the conversation on Twitter with #SouthAsiaCT.


Shamila Chaudhary
Senior Fellow, New America

Happymon Jacob (via Skype)
Associate Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University

Riaz Mohammad Khan
Former Foreign Secretary of Pakistan

Stephen Tankel
Associate Professor, American University

Moeed Yusuf, moderator
Associate Vice President, Asia Center, U.S. Institute of Peace

Related Publications

Pakistan’s Leader Vows to Press Afghan Taliban to Join Talks

Pakistan’s Leader Vows to Press Afghan Taliban to Join Talks

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

By: USIP Staff

Pakistan’s Prime Minister Imran Khan vowed to return home from his first official trip to Washington and meet leaders of the Afghan Taliban to persuade them to drop their rejection of peace talks that include the Afghan government. Khan spoke to an audience of U.S. policymakers, scholars and diplomats at the U.S. Institute of Peace following talks with President Trump in his first visit to the United States as prime minister. Khan discussed his meeting with Trump and hopes for an improved relationship with the United States, as well as Pakistan’s struggles with corruption and poverty, and relations with its neighbors.

Peace Processes

Exposure to Violence and Voting in Karachi, Pakistan

Exposure to Violence and Voting in Karachi, Pakistan

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

By: Mashail Malik ; Niloufer Siddiqui

Pakistan’s 2018 elections marked just the second time in history that power transferred peacefully from one civilian government to another after a full term in office. Although the initial months of campaigning were relatively free of violence, the two weeks before polling were dangerous for campaigners and voters alike, and the elections provided a platform for some parties to incite violence, particularly against Pakistan’s minority sects. This report provides a deep examination of how exposure to political violence in Pakistan’s largest city affects political behavior, including willingness to vote and faith in the democratic process.

Electoral Violence

View All Publications