Afghans across the country are exhausted by decades of continuous violence and there is a near-universal desire for peace. Two three-day ceasefires to mark the holiday of Eid al-Fitr in 2018 and 2020 provided hope for a future peaceful Afghanistan. Violence is the Taliban’s main form of leverage, while the Afghan government has stated its top goal in peace talks is an enduring ceasefire. Progress on this impasse may be crucial in early rounds of talks.

This collection of papers explores interrelated security issues including the need to dramatically reduce violence, the demobilization and reintegration of fighters, and the future of the Afghan security sector.

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