Rather than protecting states, borders in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco are now a challenge and a threat. Radical change in approaches to border security is needed. Smuggling in the region is well established, but has changed in a dangerous way in the last decade and is significant to the challenge: drugs and weapons are now smuggled along the same routes as food, fuel, and tobacco. Terrorists now ghost along those same trails. Old approaches are no longer appropriate. Efforts to counter smuggling by force alone only limits livelihood options, sparks grievances, and ultimately increases the reach of radical ideologies. New strategies are needed. This report—derived from interviews of border community members, journalists, NGO personnel, and representatives of government entities tasked with border security—addresses the particulars of a new, multilateral, cross-border approach.