Kyrgyzstan is the only country in Central Asia that has seen significant political transition since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, having twice—in 2005 and 2010—overthrown autocrats in violent uprisings. At the same time, its new democratic institutions, elected leaders, and multiparty parliament make it a test case for political liberalization. If its political system fails or the country falls apart, so will the first democratic experiment in Central Asia. Concerns within Kyrgyzstan are that underlying socioeconomic conditions and a lack of public services—combined with other factors, such as drug trafficking, political manipulation, regional instability, and imported religious ideologies—create an environment in which violent extremism can flourish. This report offers perspectives on the national and regional dynamics of violent extremism and what might be done to prevent it in Kyrgyzstan.