Peaceworks

In-depth background and analysis on topics that represent the full range of USIP’s work. Reports explore specific conflicts, offer comparative analysis across conflicts, evaluate peacebuilding efforts, and present new approaches to conflict through a variety of lenses, such as economics, gender, media and technology, religion, rule of law, and security sector reform.

Weak Ugandan Democracy, Strong Regional Influence

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni’s reputation is weakened by his unwillingness to leave office: he was elected for a fifth term of office in February 2016 in an election that drew international criticism. This report, a joint publication of USIP and the Institute for Security Studies, explores key elements of Uganda’s domestic politics and foreign policy as well as the impact they have in the region and internationally.

Elizabeth Murray, Berouk Mesfin and Stephanie Wolters

Summary

  • Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni came to power in 1986 after leading the National Resistance Army’s armed struggle for control of the country.
  • Initially hailed as one of Africa’s new, progressive, and capable heads of state, Museveni has seen his favorable reputation tarnished by his unwillingness to leave office.
Fri, 09/30/2016 - 10:33
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Prisons in Yemen (Arabic)

يتناول هذا التقرير نظام السجون في اليمن من منظور النظم العامة ذات الصلة. وحظيت الدراسة، التي تُعد جزءًا من مشروع الممتد على مدار ثلاث سنوات (PISU) معهد السلام الأمريكي بشأن سيادة القانون خلال الفترة الانتقالية لمرحلة ما بعد الربيع العربي في اليمن، بدعم من مكتب شؤون المخدرات وإنفاذ القوانين الدولية التابع لوزارة الخارجية الأمريكية. وبموجب تصريح من وزارة الداخلية ومصلحة السجون اليمنية، قام فريق البحث - المكون من المؤلفتين فيونا مانغان وإيريكا غاستون التابعتين لمعهد السلام الأمريكي، وأيمن الإرياني وطه ياسين التابعين للمركز اليمني لقياس الرأي العام، والاستشارية لميس الحميدي -بزيارة سبعة وثلاثين مقر احتجاز في ست محافظات لتقييم الأداء التنظيمي والبنية التحتية ووضع السجناء والأمن.

English version available.

Fiona Mangan with Erica Gaston

ملخص

منذ أزمة 1102 التي نجمت عن ثورات الربيع العربي، يمر اليمن بمرحلة تحول سياسي بالغ الأهمية. وتتمثل الأهداف الرئيسية لهذا التحول السياسي في تحسين المؤسسات الحكومية وتعزيز سيادة القانون. ويجب أن يكون إصلاح نظام السجون في صلب أي استراتيجية تهدف إلى تطوير مؤسسات سيادة القانون.

Sat, 07/23/2016 - 09:53
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Prisons and Detention in Libya

This report examines the prison system in Libya. With the permission of the Libyan Ministry of Justice and Judicial Police, United States Institute of Peace (USIP) research teams conducted two assessments of the Libyan prison system, visiting detention facilities throughout the country in 2012 and again in 2015–16 to evaluate organizational function, security, infrastructure, and prisoner well-being. This report combines and compares the findings of the two assessments, discussing the broader context of detention issues in Libya, with analysis centering on prisons under the authority of the Ministry of Justice and operated by the Judicial Police. 

Fiona Mangan and Rebecca Murray

Summary

  • Libya’s prisons and detention system is in chaos, and earlier hopes for reform have faltered.
  • The turmoil of the 2011 revolution and the subsequent emergence of two governments have created a splintered system struggling to cope with structural, security, and budgetary challenges.
  • Prisons are run not only by different branches of the rival governments but also by politically aligned armed groups outside the state’s purview.
Fri, 09/02/2016 - 13:24
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Tribe, Security, Justice and Peace in Libya Today

After the 2011 revolution in Libya that toppled Gadhafi and destroyed many state institutions, tribes and armed groups stepped in to fill the vacuum. The trend increased after the collapse of central state security in 2014. This report examines the renewed role of tribes as guarantors of social stability and providers of security and justice services in the country during the period and today.

Peter Cole with Fiona Mangan

Summary

  • Governance in Libya has long been influenced by tribal leaders alongside central authority. Tribalism and its meaning for Libyans, though, has evolved over the centuries, initially in response to outside powers and more recently to internal circumstances.
  • The first efforts to extend central government authority, introduced during the Ottoman era, were continued through the Gadhafi era and fueled significant conflict between tribes.
Fri, 09/02/2016 - 13:03
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Policing Libya: Form And Function Of Policing Since The 2011 Revolution

This report examines the different directions that policing in Libya has taken since the fall of Gadhafi in 2011. Using two cities, Tobruk and Sabha, as representative case studies, the report examines how competing and overlapping groups have assumed policing functions and traces the social and political inclinations of those groups. Acknowledging that local variation prevents countrywide generalization, the report identifies features and tendencies of the Libyan landscape that are relevant to future reform. 

Peter Cole with Fiona Mangan

Summary

  • Libya’s security sector has changed significantly since the 2011 revolution and continues to change as actors compete for influence and power.
  • Before the revolution, policing functions were housed in specialized departments answering to the Ministry of Interior. Domestic intelligence answered to the Internal Security Organization.
  • After the revolution, which caused a wholesale collapse of policing institutions across the country, reforms empowered fundamentalists and neighborhood armed groups by legitimizing them.
Thu, 08/25/2016 - 16:44
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State Strengthening in Afghanistan

Since 2001, Afghanistan’s political and social landscape has changed dramatically. However, international state-strengthening interventions have arguably had mixed results. Unprecedented aid and assistance has helped the country transition to a nascent democracy, attain a greater level of security, rebuild some of its infrastructure, and open more space for civil society participation. 

But, the diverse approaches taken by multiple actors with varying objectives have sometimes had negative consequences. Moreover, due to competing internal and external motivations and the current trends of declining aid and increasing conflict, the progress achieved may not be sustainable or have a long-term impact. This report provides lessons learned in state strengthening from 2001–14, as well as recommendations for current and future interventions.

Scott Smith and Colin Cookman, editors
Tue, 05/24/2016 - 10:41
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Afghanistan National Defense and Security Forces

In the past fourteen years, the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) have developed into a collection of professional institutions that are both committed to their mission and highly respected. However, they still face major challenges in key areas of capacity, such as logistics, air power, and intelligence. This report assesses the ANDSF’s structure and capabilities and the conditions needed for their long-term financial and operational sustainability.

Summary

  • From inception, the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) have experienced shifting political and security conditions that have impacted their size, structure, mission, and capacity.
  • The ANDSF have long been dependent on U.S. financial and operational assistance, as well as support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. They are expected to remain dependent on foreign aid for many years.
Ali A. Jalali
Fri, 05/20/2016 - 13:09
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Informality in Karachi’s Land, Manufacturing and Transport Sectors

Rapid population growth, ethnicization, and a policy shift toward deregulation and privatization have contributed to a rise in informality in almost all of Karachi’s economic sectors. These factors have also diminished the state’s capacity to regulate the economy and maintain a monopoly over violence. In examining Karachi’s sizable land, manufacturing, and transport sectors, it becomes clear that informality can directly or indirectly contribute to instability, but also that instability has an impact on informality and service delivery. Some formalization of the sectors could help create the conditions for improved economic growth and enduring stability. However, the process must be guided by an empowered local government and an inclusive master plan.

Asad Sayeed, Khurram Husain, Syed Salim Raza

Summary

  • Informality is widely prevalent in almost all of Karachi’s economic sectors and has both contributed to and been impacted by instability.
  • Since the 1970s, informal employment and service delivery have been rising, mainly due to rapid population growth, a policy shift toward deregulation and privatization, and the state’s diminishing capacity to regulate the economy.
Tue, 05/03/2016 - 11:49
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Terrorism Prosecution in Pakistan

Pakistan’s criminal justice system related to terrorism prosecution is in urgent need of reform. Conviction rates in the country’s anti-terrorism courts (ATCs) continue to be extremely low. This report highlights the numerous problems contributing to the system’s failure, including absent defense councils and witnesses, limited use of forensic evidence, poor investigative capacity, and lack of coordination between the police and prosecution. Compounding these problems is the high number of cases going through the ATCs, notably due to the 1997 Anti-Terrorism Act’s broad definition of terrorism. Any reforms or new laws aimed at reducing terrorism must account for these long-standing implementation issues.

Summary

  • Despite passage of the Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) in 1997 and, subsequently, the creation of fifty-four anti-terrorism courts (ATCs), conviction rates in Pakistan continue to be extremely low.
  • Numerous amendments to the law have increased the severity of penalties for terrorism crimes, but little attention has been paid to court administration and case management.
Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi
Mon, 04/25/2016 - 15:47
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Afghanistan Post-2014

Geospatial analysis and mapping have a critical role to play in reconstruction efforts in conflict-affected regions. This report explains the core problem in typical data collection techniques: bias. Data is collected only where collection is safe and thus is not representative. To be more effective, development programs need more in-depth analysis of their reconstruction efforts, even in the most insecure spaces.

Summary

  • Current methods of monitoring and evaluation in conflict-affected environments such as Afghanistan have typically focused on achievements in more secure and accessible areas where international investment is higher and the population has historically been more attuned to the interests of the state.
  • The institutional interests of donors and an overreliance on quantitative data collection techniques, such as polling, has led to this bias in assessing the impact of programs.
David Mansfield
Thu, 11/12/2015 - 10:48
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September 2016
Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni’s reputation is weakened by his unwillingness to leave office: he was elected for a fifth term of office in February 2016 in an election that drew international criticism. This report, a joint publication of USIP and the Institute for Security Studies, explores key...
September 2016
This report examines the prison system in Libya. With the permission of the Libyan Ministry of Justice and Judicial Police, United States Institute of Peace (USIP) research teams conducted two assessments of the Libyan prison system, visiting detention facilities throughout the country in 2012 and...
September 2016
After the 2011 revolution in Libya that toppled Gadhafi and destroyed many state institutions, tribes and armed groups stepped in to fill the vacuum. The trend increased after the collapse of central state security in 2014. This report examines the renewed role of tribes as guarantors of social...
August 2016
This report examines the different directions that policing in Libya has taken since the fall of Gadhafi in 2011. Using two cities, Tobruk and Sabha, as representative case studies, the report examines how competing and overlapping groups have assumed policing functions and traces the social and...
July 2016
يتناول هذا التقرير نظام السجون في اليمن من منظور النظم العامة ذات الصلة. وحظيت الدراسة، التي تُعد جزءًا من مشروع الممتد على مدار ثلاث سنوات (PISU) معهد السلام الأمريكي بشأن سيادة القانون خلال الفترة الانتقالية لمرحلة ما بعد الربيع العربي في اليمن، بدعم من مكتب شؤون المخدرات وإنفاذ القوانين الدولية...
May 2016
Since 2001, Afghanistan’s political and social landscape has changed dramatically. However, international state-strengthening interventions have arguably had mixed results. Unprecedented aid and assistance has helped the country transition to a nascent democracy, attain a greater level of security...
May 2016
In the past fourteen years, the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) have developed into a collection of professional institutions that are both committed to their mission and highly respected. However, they still face major challenges in key areas of capacity, such as logistics, air...
May 2016
Rapid population growth, ethnicization, and a policy shift toward deregulation and privatization have contributed to a rise in informality in almost all of Karachi’s economic sectors. These factors have also diminished the state’s capacity to regulate the economy and maintain a monopoly over...
April 2016
Pakistan’s criminal justice system related to terrorism prosecution is in urgent need of reform. Conviction rates in the country’s anti-terrorism courts (ATCs) continue to be extremely low. This report highlights the numerous problems contributing to the system’s failure, including absent defense...
November 2015
Geospatial analysis and mapping have a critical role to play in reconstruction efforts in conflict-affected regions. This report explains the core problem in typical data collection techniques: bias. Data is collected only where collection is safe and thus is not representative. To be more...