Turkey

After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased.

Working Effectively with Interpreters

The success of a project or mission in a cross-cultural, multilingual environment often depends upon effective communication with an audience or local counterpart. Interpreters play a critical role in bridging language and cultural divides, but that depends upon your ability to work with them effectively. Failed interpretation of an important message or concept can easily lead to miscommunication, embarrassment, strained relationships, or even danger. This course offers practical tips to work effectively with interpreters.

Twitter Evolutions: The Changing Role of Social Media in War and Protest

Mon, 02/24/2014 - 09:00
Mon, 02/24/2014 - 13:00

In this half-day conference, the U.S. Institute of Peace and the George Washington University’s Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication hosted two panels of experts on social media’s role in political protest and civil war across the Middle East and Europe as part of a discussion on the latest Blogs and Bullets report: Syria’s Socially Mediated War.

9:00am to 9:10am | Introduction

  • Sheldon Himelfarb
    Director of Media, Technology, and Peacebuilding, U.S. Institute of Peace

9:10am to 10:30am | Panel I: Syria’s Socially Mediated Civil War

  • P.J. Crowley, Moderator
    Professor of Practice, School of Media and Public Affairs, George Washington University. Former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs
  • Marc Lynch
    Director, Institute for Middle East Studies, George Washington University
  • Sean Aday
    Director, Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication, George Washington University
  • Deen Freelon
    Assistant Professor of Communications Studies, American University

10:30am to 10:45am | Break

10:45am to 12:30pm | Panel II: New Media and Contentious Politics in Egypt, Ukraine and Turkey

  • P.J. Crowley, Moderator
    Professor of Practice, School of Media and Public Affairs, George Washington University. Former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs
  • Adel Iskandar
    Adjunct Instructor, Communication, Culture & Technology, Georgetown University
  • Joshua Tucker
    Professor of Politics, New York University
  • Zeynep Tufecki
    Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

In the early days of the Arab Spring, many hailed digital media as revolutionary tools for democracy and peacebuilding. Three years later, as the region still struggles with authoritarian retrenchment and civil war, social media continues to play an important, if far more complex, role in ongoing events. Meanwhile, protest movements in parts of Europe – especially Turkey and Ukraine – are providing intriguing, and complicated, examples of digitally-active protest movements and recalcitrant governments.

Type of Event or Course: 

The Crackdown on Media in Syria, Egypt and Turkey

The latest responses from Turkey, Egypt and Syria are emblematic of the range of tactics used. They include direct intimidation or imprisonment of social media activists and journalists, disruption of access to online sites or platforms, the shutdown of media offices, the mobilization of pro-government advocates, and blackouts of Internet service. 

What follows is a synopsis of the different approaches taken by these governments to stifle traditional and social media coverage during the uprisings.  

Working Effectively with Interpreters

Wed, 12/11/2013 (All day)
Wed, 12/31/2014 - 23:59

This course is designed for international professionals who wish to improve their communication skills when working with an interpreter in a cross-cultural context.

The success of a project or mission in a cross-cultural, multilingual environment often depends upon effective communication with an audience or local counterpart. Interpreters play a critical role in bridging language and cultural divides, but that depends upon your ability to work with them effectively. Failed interpretation of an important message or concept can easily lead to miscommunication, embarrassment, strained relationships, or even danger. This course offers practical tips to work effectively with interpreters.

Type of Event or Course: 

Stall in Turkey’s EU Accession Talks Calls for Alternative Approach

German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s visit to Ankara this week provided some reassurance that stalled European Union accession negotiations with Turkey might resume, but even if that happens, they’re likely to continue the halting pattern characteristic of the talks since they began in 2005. The public skepticism of the process held by EU members and Turkey alike risks poisoning that relationship as well as other connective tissue, such as ties between the U.S.

Democratic Breakthroughs: The Ingredients of Successful Revolts

Although each revolution is different, each successful case of democratic breakthrough shares common domestic and international influences. This report examines 11 cases of past successes at removing autocratic regimes and establishing elections. It then applies its findings to the emerging revolutions of the Arab Spring.

Ray Salvatore Jennings

Summary

  • The cases of successful breakthrough examined in this study are the Soviet Union in 1991 and Russia in 1993, Poland in 1989, Serbia in 2000, Ukraine in 2004, Indonesia by 1999, Chile in 1988, and South Africa by 1996. Cases of failed and then ultimately successful democratic transition are Ghana by 2000, Mexico by 2000, South Korea by 1987, and Turkey by 1983. Finally, the cases of failed transition examined are Algeria in 1991, Iran in 1979, China in 1989, and Azerbaijan in 2005.
Fri, 07/27/2012 - 10:03
Type of Article: 

Fellow Robin Wright Recognized by the Overseas Press Club

On April 25, Robin Wright, noted author, journalist, and joint USIP-Woodrow Wilson Center fellow, was recognized by the Overseas Press Club (OPC) for her recent book Rock the Casbah: Rage and Rebellion Across the Middle East. Wright received the OPC’s Cornelius Ryan Award, which recognizes the best non-fiction book on international affairs. 

On April 25, Robin Wright, noted author, journalist, and joint USIP-Woodrow Wilson Center fellow, was recognized by the Overseas Press Club (OPC) for her recent book Rock the Casbah: Rage and Rebellion Across the Middle East. Wright received the OPC’s Cornelius Ryan Award, which recognizes the best non-fiction book on international affairs. 

Rock the Casbah "captures a pivotal moment in history with superb on-the-ground reporting across the Middle East that reflects her decades of experience covering the region,” according the OPC citation.

Mon, 04/30/2012 - 16:01
Type of Article: 

Examining the Prospects for Iran Nuclear Talks

Talks between Iran and a group known as the P5 plus 1 (the five United Nations Security Council permanent members plus Germany) on Iran’s nuclear programs are expected to begin on April 14 in Istanbul, Turkey. The resumption of negotiations might represent an important juncture in the long saga of international efforts to restrain and verify the nature of Iran’s nuclear efforts, which Tehran contends is intended to develop energy sources and conduct research but which the United States and other key international players suspect is a bid to develop the capability to produce nuclear weapons.

Talks between Iran and a group known as the P5 plus 1 (the five United Nations Security Council permanent members plus Germany) on Iran’s nuclear programs are expected to begin on April 14 in Istanbul, Turkey.

Wed, 04/11/2012 - 14:25
Type of Article: 
Countries: 

The Big Picture on Europe’s Travails

As part of USIP’s ongoing series about the U.S. role in the world, Judy Ansley, a member of USIP’s board and former deputy national security adviser discusses the economic crises in Europe, the changing relationship between the U.S. and Europe, and the contributions the Institute can and does make during this time of tremendous challenge and opportunity.

Judy Ansley

Judy Ansley, a member of USIP’s board, served as assistant to the president and deputy national security advisor at the National Security Council (NSC) from 2008 until January 20, 2009. Ansley also served as deputy national security adviser for regional affairs from 2007-2008 and began her service at the NSC in August 2005 as special assistant to the president and senior director for European affairs. Prior to her NSC service, Ansley served for more than 20 years in various positions in the U.S. Senate.

Tue, 03/06/2012 - 11:39
Type of Article: 

Arab League Strives for Relevance on Syria but Faces Test

USIP's Steven Heydemann looks at Syria and the impact the Arab League can have on the Assad regime.

In recent months, the Arab League has unexpectedly become a serious player in efforts to manage the Syrian uprising. Breaking with its well-deserved reputation for irrelevance, the League proactively inserted itself into the Syrian crisis in November. Following months of regime violence against Syrian civilians, it suspended Syria’s membership. It imposed economic sanctions on Syria and then pressured the Assad regime into accepting an observer mission intended to reduce the regime’s violence against protesters.

Thu, 01/19/2012 - 18:20
Type of Article: 
Countries: 

Articles & Analysis

July 17, 2013

With the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi in Egypt, the ongoing civil war in Syria, and the protests in Turkey, a common reaction by governments has been to directly threaten the openness and vibrancy of media in an effort to overpower the messages of activists. But the tactics that these governments employ can differ widely.

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December 11, 2013

This course is designed for international professionals who wish to improve their communication skills when working with an interpreter in a cross-cultural context.

The success of a project or mission in a cross-cultural, multilingual environment often depends upon effective communication with an audience or local counterpart.
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By:
Ray Salvatore Jennings
Although each revolution is different, each successful case of democratic breakthrough shares common domestic and international influences. This report examines 11 cases of past successes at removing autocratic regimes and establishing elections. It then applies its findings to the emerging revolutions of the Arab Spring.
On April 25, Robin Wright, noted author, journalist, and joint USIP-Woodrow Wilson Center fellow, was recognized by the Overseas Press Club (OPC) for her recent book Rock the Casbah: Rage and Rebellion Across the Middle East. Wright received the OPC’s Cornelius Ryan Award, which recognizes the best non-fiction book on international affairs.