The Two Sudans

On July 9th, 2011 the Republic of South Sudan declared independence, resulting in the most significant redrawing of the map of Africa since decolonization. Both new Sudans face a series of internal and external challenges to peace. The U.S. Institute of Peace is engaging on many of these key issues in an effort to help build a more peaceful, stable and secure Sudan and South Sudan.

The South Sudanese Youth Leaders Program is now accepting applications through September 1, 2014.

Ask an Expert: the Crisis in South Sudan
The Global Peacebuilding Center is connecting you with Susan Stigant, one of USIP's South Sudan experts, who is ready to answer questions about the nature of the conflict. 

Princeton N. Lyman

Princeton
Lyman
Senior Advisor to the President

Ambassador Princeton N. Lyman is a senior advisor to the President for the U.S. Institute of Peace.

Please submit all media inquiries to interviews@usip.org or call 202.429.3869.

For all other inquiries, please call 202.457.1700.

Ambassador Princeton N. Lyman served as United States special envoy for Sudan and South Sudan from March 2011 to March  2013.  As special envoy he led U.S. policy in helping in the implementation of the  2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Ambassador Lyman previously held the position of Ralph Bunche Fellow for African Affairs at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He was also an adjunct professor at Georgetown University and at Johns Hopkins School for Advanced International Studies.

Role: 

Working Effectively with Interpreters

Wed, 12/11/2013 (All day)
Wed, 12/31/2014 - 23:59

This course is designed for international professionals who wish to improve their communication skills when working with an interpreter in a cross-cultural context.

The success of a project or mission in a cross-cultural, multilingual environment often depends upon effective communication with an audience or local counterpart. Interpreters play a critical role in bridging language and cultural divides, but that depends upon your ability to work with them effectively. Failed interpretation of an important message or concept can easily lead to miscommunication, embarrassment, strained relationships, or even danger. This course offers practical tips to work effectively with interpreters.

Type of Event or Course: 

Understanding Sudan and South Sudan's Cooperation Agreements Through a Gender Lens

Short Description: 

Although gender concerns do not figure explicitly in the Sudan and South Sudan's September 2012 framework agreements, implementation offers both countries an important opportunity to develop an inclusive process whereby women actively participate and voice their own priorities and concerns.

Introduction: 

In September 2012, Sudan and South Sudan signed nine cooperation agreements, including a framework agreement and specific agreements on oil, border issues, citizenship, and the division of debts and assets.  These represent many of the unresolved issues stemming from the secession of South Sudan in July 2011.  Although gender concerns do not figure explicitly in the framework agreements, implementation offers both countries an important opportunity to develop an inclusive process whereby women actively participate and voice their own priorities and concerns.

Following from these agreements, USIP has produced an analysis, "The 2012 Sudan-South Sudan Agreements Through A Gender Lens," that examines gender aspects of each of the nine agreements and makes recommendations for gender-sensitive implementation of the agreements.  Overall, the analysis recommends:

Sudanese Initiative for Constitution Making

Subtitle: 
Constitution Making in Sudan and South Sudan
Short Description: 

Founded in March 2011, SICM is a network of approximately 40 Sudanese NGOs dedicated to educating the Sudanese people on the importance of constitutions and constitution making, and advocating for a transparent, inclusive, and participatory constitution-making process that reflects the diversity of Sudan and leads to a constitution based on democracy, equality, citizenship, social and economic justice and fundamental human rights.

Introduction: 

With the end of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement’s interim period and the secession of South Sudan, Sudanese officials and civil society have begun calling for a new constitution for Sudan.  When, how, and by whom the new constitution would be written has been the subject of great uncertainty and debate, with civil society actors calling for a process that could provide a platform to discuss, negotiate, and resolve Sudan’s multiple conflicts in a single holistic approach instead of piecemeal peace agreements, strengthen national unity and identity, reach consensus on the core values and fundamental principles of the nation, educate citizens on the principles and practice of democracy, and build trust between communities.

USIP supports the Sudanese Initiative for Constitution Making (SICM).  Founded in March 2011, SICM is a network of approximately 40 Sudanese NGOs dedicated to educating the Sudanese people on the importance of constitutions and constitution making, and advocating for a transparent, inclusive, and participatory constitution-making process that reflects the diversity of Sudan and leads to a constitution based on democracy, equality, citizenship, social and economic justice and fundamental human rights.  SICM’s network spreads throughout the country, with focal

Project Chairs (HTML): 

Jason Gluck (Photo: U.S. Institute of Peace)Jason Gluck
Senior Program Officer, Rule of Law, Center of Innovation

Constitution Making in Sudan and South Sudan

Short Description: 

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement installed an interim constitution for Sudan and Southern Sudan.  In the wake of South Sudan's secession, both countries are undertaking constitutional review processes, although the endeavors have suffered from lack of inclusivity, transparency, participation, and political will, leaving north and south without permanent constitutions to guide their national policies.

Introduction: 

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement installed an interim constitution for Sudan and Southern Sudan.  In the wake of South Sudan's secession, both countries are undertaking constitutional review processes, although the efforts have suffered from lack of inclusivity, transparency, participation, and political will, leaving Sudan and South Sudan without permanent constitutions to guide their national policies.

Sudan

Sudan currently operates under an Interim National Constitution, which needs to be replaced following South Sudan’s secession.  While the need for a permanent constitution is widely acknowledged, little is known about how the government will conduct such an exercise - who will be included? How widely will the public be consulted?  How long will the process take?  What issues will be on the table?

Engagement in Darfur

Short Description: 

USIP has continued to focus on developments in Darfur, both viewing the conflict in Darfur through the lens of the broader governance challenges in the peripheries of Sudan,  as well as highlighting the particular difficulties with respect to Darfur.

Introduction: 

For the last decade, violence has raged in Darfur.  Despite international efforts to quell the crisis and to support mediated settlements including the May 2011 Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD), the conflict remains unresolved.  USIP has focused on these developments, viewing the conflict in Darfur through the lens of the broader governance challenges in the peripheries of Sudan,  as well as highlighting the particular difficulties with respect to Darfur.

Over the years, USIP has spearheaded a number of initiatives, including publications, events, and work in the field:

Countries: 

Supporting a Peaceful Transition to an Independent South Sudan

Short Description: 

In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) formally ended the two-decades long civil war between the Government of Sudan and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM). USIP has provided training and support to Sudanese and Southern Sudanese institutions and civil society members to help ensure a peaceful transition out of conflict, as well as analysis to assess progress toward this goal.

Introduction: 

In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) formally ended two decades of civil war between the Government of Sudan and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM). In addition to supporting the development of governance structures across the entire country and planning to share oil resources, the agreements mandated steps toward a referendum on South Sudanese independence.  In support of these developments, USIP has provided training and support to Sudanese and Southern Sudanese institutions and civil society members to help ensure a peaceful transition out of conflict, as well as analysis to assess progress toward this goal.

In keeping with the CPA, Sudan undertook a series of steps to promote peace, encourage unity, and provide to southern Sudan limited autonomy.  A Government of National Unity in Khartoum and autonomous Government of Southern Sudan in Juba formed in 2005.  In April 2010, Sudan held multiparty elections, in January 2011, the country held a referendum, resulting in 99% voting for independence, and on July 9, 2011, South Sudan became the world's newest state.

Countries: 

Constitution Making and Rule of Law in the Two Sudans

Short Description: 

The constitutional review processes being undertaken by Sudan and South Sudan must be inclusive, participatory, and transparent, recognizing the deep ethnic divisions that continue to jeopardize the rule of law, and accounting for the many customary legal practices that continue to serve local communities.

Introduction: 

The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) set forth a framework for establishing new rule of law systems in both Sudan and South Sudan, most notably including permanent constitutions to replace the interim and transitional documents in the two states.  The constitutional review processes for both north and south should be inclusive, participatory, and transparent, recognizing the deep ethnic divisions that continue to jeopardize the rule of law, and accounting for the many customary legal practices that continue to serve local communities.

USIP's work on these issues has included three primary groups of activities:

Constitution Making in Sudan and South Sudan:  In the wake of southern secession, Sudan and South Sudan are undertaking constitutional review processes to establish permanent constitutions.  USIP is supporting efforts to ensure that these processes are inclusive, participatory, and transparent.

Police-Community Dialogues

Short Description: 

Given that many members of the South Sudan police force are former soldiers, serious gaps remain in the concept of public security and the role of law enforcement in creating secure communities in South Sudan. Tensions remain between members of civil society organizations and the police stemming from confrontational approaches that both sides have adopted during the transition to democracy.

Introduction: 

Given that many members of the South Sudan police force are former soldiers, serious gaps remain in the concept of public security and the role of law enforcement in creating secure communities in South Sudan. Tensions remain between members of civil society organizations and the police stemming from confrontational approaches that both sides have adopted during the transition to democracy.

This program started in Juba and several other states in 2011 and established regular police-community dialogue series in local communities to help manage tensions and establish regular structured contact between security officials and civil society actors. In the upcoming year it will expand to other areas.

Eye on Sudan: Referendum January 2011

Short Description: 

The referendum in Sudan took place January 9-15, 2011 to decide whether southern Sudanregion should remain a part of Sudan or become an independent country. The referendum is one of the consequences of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Khartoum central government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M).

Introduction: 

As a product of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement between Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M), Sudan conducted a national referendum on January 9-11, 2011 to decide the status of southern Sudan.  The referendum witnessed high turnout and an ultimate decision for southern Sudan to gain independence, with nearly 99% voting for this outcome.

USIP closely followed the referendum, both in advance of the event and in assessing its outcome.  Despite some dire predictions, Sudan’s recent referendum was remarkably peaceful, with the notable exception of violence around the disputed Abyei area. There are many obstacles yet to come, including resolution of the status of Abyei and negotiations over post-referendum arrangements, such as sharing of oil revenue and debt. The peaceful referendum process so far is a credit to the citizens and voters of Sudan and their leaders.