Rwanda

In 1959, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile. The children of these exiles formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens. The genocide ended when the Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees fled to neighboring countries. Most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations.

Peace Prospects in the Great Lakes

Thu, 02/20/2014 - 13:00
Thu, 02/20/2014 - 14:30
Subtitle: 
A Discussion with U.S. Special Envoy Russell D. Feingold

USIP and U.S. Special Envoy Russ Feingold discussed the prospects for peace in the Great Lakes region of Africa on February 20th.

Experts: 

Africa's Great Lakes region has been a violent and unstable for years. April marks 20 years since the Rwandan genocide resulted in the deaths of half a million people in 100 days. Conflict in neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo alone has displaced or killed more than 5 million residents in the past two decades, making it the deadliest war in Africa’s modern history. The region is challenged by ethnic tensions, the exploitation of resources, the continued use of child soldiers, dozens of armed rebel armed groups, and violence against women. Russ Feingold, the U.S.

Type of Event or Course: 

Conflict Analysis

A nuanced understanding of the context and dynamics of a conflict can determine the effectiveness with which you intervene in a conflict, prevent further harm from being done, help determine priorities for program development and lead to understanding better the consequences of any actions or policies.

This course is a case-based introduction to the process of conflict analysis. Students will be introduced to two analytical frameworks for conflict analysis in the course, and be given the chance to apply them to historical cases and relevant problem-based scenarios.

South Sudanese, Rwandans Share Stories of Resilience in Search of Hope

Twenty years after the genocide, Rwanda is often seen as an example of reconciliation and social reintegration. Reminders of the systemic violence perpetrated by the government that began in 1992, in addition to the 100 days of genocide in 1994, are barely visible at the surface. But University of Rwanda lecturer Alice Karekezi notes that “the Rwandan people still carry the scars of war.”  And it is still considered taboo to discuss ethnicity in public. But dialogue clubs have emerged in communities and schools for Rwandans to share grievances as a healing mechanism.

Nicoletta Barbera and Danielle Robertson

The U.S. Institute of Peace’s Center for Gender and Peacebuilding coordinated a pilot training program in the Rwandan capital Kigali June 5-10 for 13 South Sudanese representatives of civil society organizations. The program aims to strengthen their capacity to use intergroup dialogue to prevent violence and to establish a framework for reconciliation.

Wed, 06/11/2014 - 12:31
Type of Article: 
Countries: 
Partners (HTML): 

'Never Again' Isn’t Enough

The 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide offers an opportune moment to reflect on the horrific events of 1994, and honor the countless victims and survivors who still carry the collective trauma of mass murder. Remembering these deliberate efforts to extinguish an entire ethnic community should not only give us pause, but also encourage our atrocity prevention community, including humanitarian and peace organizations around the world, to rethink how such failures of humanity can guide us forward, beyond "Never Again" slogans.

Jonas Claes

Once the plane of President Juvénal Habyarimana was shot down on April 6, 1994, as it prepared to land in Kigali, the decapitated Hutu regime moved to exploit the resulting leadership vacuum. In response to the perceived existential threat posed by the armed Tutsi opposition moving towards the capital, it adopted a genocidal strategy.

Mon, 04/07/2014 - 14:22
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Countries: 

Feingold Urges DRC Reforms, Great Lakes Regional Cooperation in Remarks at USIP

Africa's Great Lakes region is ripe for progress in resolving its deadly conflicts, particularly in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but it will take deeper regional cooperation and the DRC's full implementation of internal reforms that it has already agreed to, Russell D. Feingold, the U.S. special envoy for the Great Lakes and the DRC, said at the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) on February 20.

USIP Staff

Feingold, a former U.S. senator from Wisconsin who served on the Senate's Africa subcommittee for 18 years, pointed to recent developments that have helped reduce violence in the DRC. Conflict there has resulted in the death or displacement of more than five million people, making it the deadliest war in Africa's modern history. The conflict has also produced mass sexual violence, the conscription of children into armed militias and other mass humanitarian problems.

Fri, 02/21/2014 - 14:43
Type of Article: 

Alan Kuperman

Alan
Kuperman
Former Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow

Alan Kuperman is a Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow.

Please submit all media inquiries to interviews@usip.org or call 202.429.3869.

For all other inquiries, please call 202.457.1700.

Note: This is an archived profile of a former U.S. Institute of Peace expert. The information is current as of the dates of tenure.

USIP, Partners Release Report on Realizing ‘Responsibility to Protect’

Despite the war-weariness of Americans and political and institutional obstacles, the United States should take the global lead in fulfilling the "Responsibility to Protect," an international norm aimed at protecting civilians from genocide and mass atrocities, two senior U.S. foreign policy figures said July 23 at the release of a report issued by the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP), the U.S. Holocaust Museum and the Brookings Institution. The Responsibility to Protect principle is generally known as "R2P."

Thomas Omestad

The release of "The United States and R2P: From Words to Action" took place at a symposium held at the Holocaust Museum in Washington. It reflects the deliberations of experts and practitioners convened by the three institutions.

Tue, 07/23/2013 - 16:39
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The United States and R2P: From Words to Action Report Released

(Washington) report released today by former secretary of state Madeleine K. Albright and former presidential special envoy to Sudan Richard S. Williamson, identifies concrete steps to increase U.S. capacity in preventing mass atrocities. As chairs of the Working Group on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), they examine the utility of the R2P principle for the prevention of mass violence. The Working Group is co-hosted by the U.S. Institute of Peace, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Brookings Institution. The roll out event will begin at 9:00 am and can be watched online.

Tue, 07/23/2013 - 08:57
Type of Article: 

The United States and R2P: From Words to Action

Tue, 07/23/2013 - 09:00
Tue, 07/23/2013 - 12:30

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) emerged as a political response to an urgent need, while the international community struggled to formulate an adequate response to the conscience-shocking atrocities of the 20th century committed in Rwanda, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sudan.

Experts: 

This symposium brought together leaders from inside and outside government to examine the utility of the R2P as a tool for preventing the world’s worst crimes.

Type of Event or Course: 

Voting in Fear

In Voting in Fear, nine contributors offer pioneering work on the scope and nature of electoral violence in Africa; investigate the forms electoral violence takes; and analyze the factors that precipitate, reduce, and prevent violence. The book breaks new ground with findings from the only known dataset of electoral violence in sub-Saharan Africa, spanning 1990 to 2008. Specific case studies of electoral violence in countries such as Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria provide the context to further understanding the circumstances under which electoral violence takes place, recedes, or recurs.

"This comprehensive volume introduces state-of-the-art data that help focus debate and research on electoral violence in conflict. Featuring excellent case studies by prominent scholars, Voting in Fear is an accessible, well-researched book that offers thoughtful and realistic policy recommendations."

Terrence Lyons, School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University

Dorina A. Bekoe, editor
Wed, 11/14/2012 - 10:11
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Articles & Analysis

April 7, 2014

The 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide offers an opportune moment to reflect on the horrific events of 1994, and honor the countless victims and survivors who still carry the collective trauma of mass murder. Remembering these deliberate efforts to extinguish an entire ethnic community should not only give us pause, but also encourage our atrocity prevention community, including humanitarian and peace organizations around the world, to rethink how such failures of humanity can guide us forward, beyond "Never Again" slogans.

Our Work in the Field

Twenty years after the genocide, Rwanda is often seen as an example of reconciliation and social reintegration. Reminders of the systemic violence perpetrated by the government that began in 1992, in addition to the 100 days of genocide in 1994,...

USIP trained hundreds of African peacekeepers in seven nations this year in how to negotiate and mediate the peace.

USIP training develops conflict management and negotiation skills of Rwandan military officers headed for the Darfur region of Sudan as peacekeepers.

USIP's training of Rwandan peacekeepers deploying to the Darfur region of Sudan "creates awareness of typical problems in the mission area and provides an opportunity to learn and use skills to deal with those problems."

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Classroom Courses

Instructor:
Peter van der Auweraert and Deborah H. Isser
September 16, 2014

Disputes and grievances over land and property are implicated in practically all conflicts. This course provides policymakers and practitioners with analytical tools for assessing and addressing an array of complex land and property disputes, from competing ownership claims and restitution to customary land rights and illegal urban settlements. Drawing on case studies of peace operations and peacebuilding efforts, participants explore the range of entry points (humanitarian, human rights, state building, development, etc.) and options for dispute resolution and structural reform.

Drawing on case studies of peace operations and peacebuilding efforts, participants explore the range of entry points (humanitarian, human rights, state building, development, etc.) and options for

Online Courses

Jeffrey Helsing

This dynamic course is a case-based introduction to the process of conflict analysis. Good conflict analysis is the foundation of any conflict management process, from prevention to mediation to reconciliation.

A nuanced understanding of the context and dynamics of a conflict can determine the effectiveness with which you intervene in a conflict, prevent further harm from being done, help determine priori

Publications

By:
Nicoletta Barbera and Danielle Robertson
Twenty years after the genocide, Rwanda is often seen as an example of reconciliation and social reintegration. Reminders of the systemic violence perpetrated by the government that began in 1992, in addition to the 100 days of genocide in 1994, are barely visible at the surface. But University of Rwanda lecturer Alice Karekezi notes that “the Rwandan people still carry the scars of war.”  And it is still considered taboo to discuss ethnicity in public. But dialogue clubs have emerged in communities and schools for Rwandans to share grievances as a healing mechanism.
The 20th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide offers an opportune moment to reflect on the horrific events of 1994, and honor the countless victims and survivors who still carry the collective trauma of mass murder. Remembering these deliberate efforts to extinguish an entire ethnic community should not only give us pause, but also encourage our atrocity prevention community, including humanitarian and peace organizations around the world, to rethink how such failures of humanity can guide us forward, beyond "Never Again" slogans.