Libya

Comparative National Dialogue Approaches

Wed, 11/06/2013 - 09:30
Wed, 11/06/2013 - 11:00
Subtitle: 
Transition Processes in Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen

As Yemen concludes its National Dialogue Conference, many question whether thus far inclusive and peaceful negotiations can act as a model for other transitioning countries. Tunisia also recently designed a national dialogue process to work through a political stalemate and re-start its post-Arab Spring transition process. Libya is also trying to work through its challenges through a holistic, national transition process.

While there are positive lessons learned from both countries’ experiences, there also have been pitfalls. The Yemeni and Tunisian experiences suggest that the timing of national dialogue processes vis-à-vis other political events and their relationship with other issues involved in political transition (such as institutional reform) are critical to ensuring the national dialogue can meet its stated goals.

Speakers included:

  • William Taylor, Opening Remarks
    Vice President, U.S. Institute of Peace
  • Dr. Aref Ali Nayed, Panelist
    Chairman, Libya Institute for Advanced Studies
  • Radwan Masmoudi, Panelist
    President, Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy 
  • Daniel Brumberg, Discussant
    Senior Advisor, U.S. Institute of Peace
  • Erica Gaston, Discussant
    Senior Program Officer, U.S. Institute of Peace
  • Manal Omar, Moderator
    Associate Vice President for the Middle East and Africa, U.S Institute of Peace
Type of Event or Course: 
Countries: 

Water Security and Conflict Prevention Summit

Tue, 09/10/2013 - 08:30
Tue, 09/10/2013 - 14:00

On September 10, 2013, U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP), the Association of the United States Army (AUSA), and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) hosted a summit on the growing concerns in water security and the risks for increased conflict.

Water is an undeniable, un-substitutable, and powerful factor in everyone’s life, from sustaining individual lives to defining both economic and social policies and practices. As populations and demand expand while supplies decline, access to water will become increasingly difficult, raising the prospects for conflict over this precious resource. By 2025, experts estimated that 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions of absolute water scarcity.

Experts: 
Type of Event or Course: 

Effective Foreign Assistance and National Security: A View from Congressman Adam Smith

Fri, 07/19/2013 - 09:00
Fri, 07/19/2013 - 10:30
Subtitle: 
A USIP Congressional Newsmaker Series Event

Congressman Adam Smith (D-WA), ranking member of the House Armed Services Committee, offered his views on how foreign assistance preserves and promotes the country’s national security.

Drawing from his extensive experience assessing U.S. military capabilities, strengths and needs, Congressman Smith spoke about the importance of strengthening American diplomacy and development capabilities, as well as defense.

Type of Event or Course: 

Lessons Learned from Iraq and How They Apply to North Africa

Tue, 04/09/2013 - 10:00
Tue, 04/09/2013 - 12:00

The event highlighted the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) experience in Iraq and examined the major problems it discovered, such as America’s “ad hoc” approach, the effectiveness of oversight, funding challenges, and the larger issue of nation-building. Experts explored how lessons learned from Iraq could be applied to other American-led efforts, such as those associated with emerging democracies.

Experts: 

Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) Stuart Bowen on March 6 released SIGIR’s final report for Congress, “Learning From Iraq,” which details the accomplishments of the U.S. reconstruction efforts in Iraq. The report provides an “instructive picture of what was the largest stabilization and reconstruction operation ever undertaken by the United States (until recently overtaken by Afghanistan)."  Additionally, the report outlines seven lessons that the U.S. should implement to improve its approach to future stabilization and reconstruction operations.

Type of Event or Course: 

Libya’s Criminal Economy of Arms, Drugs, People Shakes Prospects for Transition

Since the people's revolution that removed Gadhafi from power and ended autocratic rule in Libya, further political, social and economic progress has been hampered by security concerns. The new report by Shaw and Mangan, Illicit Trafficking and Libya's Transition: Profits and Losses, reveals how organized criminal activity and underground economies disrupt democratic political processes and impede state-building.

New Peacekeeping Strategies Following Violent Regime Change

Wed, 05/28/2014 - 09:00
Fri, 05/30/2014 - 17:00

With a focus on current peacekeeping missions by the United Nations and regional organizations, participants will examine approaches for the international community to assist emerging governments in controlling their national borders, policing their cities and protecting their citizens.

In the aftermath of Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States has demonstrated renewed interest in international peacekeeping. Presidential Policy Directive 23 made it a goal of U.S. policy to strengthen collective security arrangements by building the capacity of partner nations to conduct multilateral peacekeeping missions. 

Type of Event or Course: 

Illicit Trafficking and Libya’s Transition: Profits and Losses

As Libya emerges from forty years of autocratic rule, the criminal economy is undermining government efforts at state consolidation. This report maps the flow of weapons, migrants, drugs, and smuggled goods through Libya and details the interactions between armed groups who control illicit markets and local communities. The authors warn that efforts to beef up border control policing will not be sufficient. Combating organized crime in Libya requires a broader approach that will engage marginalized groups in a political process. Failure to do so will affect not only Libya but the region as well.

Summary

  • Criminal activities are driving conflict in postrevolutionary Libya and undermining state consolidation.
  • The foundation of the illicit economy rests on four interconnected markets: weapons, migrants, drugs, and smuggled goods.
  • A widespread prevalence of weapons has completely changed the game in Libya and led to an industry in criminal protection.
  • The dynamics of criminal activity and the development of illicit markets have different trajectories in northern coastal cities and inland towns and border areas.
Mark Shaw and Fiona Mangan
Mon, 02/24/2014 - 10:21
Issue Areas: 
Countries: 

Leanne McKay

Leanne
McKay
Senior Program Officer, Rule of Law Center

Please submit all media inquiries to interviews@usip.org or call 202.429.3869.

For all other inquiries, please call 202.457.1700.

Leanne McKay is a senior program officer with Rule of Law in the Center for Governance, Law and Society at the U.S. Institute of Peace. Her work focuses on engaging government and civil society representatives on the promotion of the rule of law in countries transitioning from conflict.

Selected Works: 
Issue Areas: 
Role: 

Libya’s New Plan for a Constitution: Can It Overcome the Chaos?

The main provisions of the revised "roadmap" include:

  • Extending the mandate of the GNC beyond Feb. 7, when it was due to expire and when the formal national dialogue on a new constitution was to have ended.

  • Conducting an election on Feb. 20 to establish a new special committee that would be tasked with drafting a constitution within 120 days.

NATO’s Balancing Act

NATO's Balancing Act evaluates the alliance’s performance of its three core tasks—collective defense, crisis management, and cooperative security—and reviews its members’ efforts to achieve the right balance among them. Yost considers NATO's role in the evolving global security environment and its implications for collective defense and crisis management in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Africa, Libya, and elsewhere.

Available July 2014

“After the acclaimed NATO Transformed, David Yost's NATO's Balancing Act demonstrates once again why the author ranks among the leading experts in his field: those who want to understand NATO's internal and external challenges will not find a more thorough analysis.”
—Michael Rühle, Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO

Fri, 01/17/2014 - 16:07

Articles & Analysis

March 19, 2014
Since the people's revolution that removed Gadhafi from power and ended autocratic rule in Libya, further political, social and economic progress has been hampered by security concerns. The new report by Shaw and Mangan, Illicit Trafficking and Libya's Transition: Profits and Losses, reveals how organized criminal activity and underground economies disrupt democratic political processes and impede state-building.
January 17, 2014
By:
Sheldon Himelfarb and Sean Aday
January 14, 2014
By:
Joyce A. Kasee and Viola Gienger
October 28, 2013
By:
Colette Rausch and Christina Murtaugh

Our Work in the Field

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Classroom Courses

Instructor:
Robert M. Perito
May 28, 2014

With a focus on current peacekeeping missions by the United Nations and regional organizations, participants will examine approaches for the international community to assist emerging governments in controlling their national borders, policing their cities and protecting their citizens.

In the aftermath of Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States has demonstrated renewed interest in international peacekeeping. Presidential Policy Directive 23 made it a goal of U.S.

Publications

As Libya emerges from forty years of autocratic rule, the criminal economy is undermining government efforts at state consolidation. This report maps the flow of weapons, migrants, drugs, and smuggled goods through Libya and details the interactions between armed groups who control illicit markets and local communities. The authors warn that efforts to beef up border control policing will not be sufficient. Combating organized crime in Libya requires a broader approach that will engage marginalized groups in a political process. Failure to do so will affect not only Libya but the region as well.
By:
USIP Staff
NATO's Balancing Act evaluates the alliance’s performance of its three core tasks—collective defense, crisis management, and cooperative security—and reviews its members’ efforts to achieve the right balance among them. Yost considers NATO's role in the evolving global security environment and its implications for collective defense and crisis management in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Africa, Libya, and elsewhere.