Kenya

Founding president Jomo Kenyatta led Kenya from 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Moi took power in a constitutional succession. In 2002, Mwai Kibaki, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru Kenyatta and assumed the presidency. Kibaki's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila Odinga and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing Odinga into the government in the restored position of prime minister. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of founding president Jomo Kenyatta, won the March elections in the first round by a close margin and was sworn into office on 9 April 2013.

Navigating the Rise of Sunni-Shia Violent Sectarianism

A recent PEW Research Center report examined polls conducted between November 2011 and May 2012. It found that 52 percent of Muslims polled in Iraq, 44 percent in Afghanistan and 67 percent in Lebanon said Sunni-Shia tensions are a “very big or moderately big” problem in their country. The re-escalation of violence in Iraq this year likely would have increased the concern there if the polling were conducted today.

Al-Shabab’s Kenya Attack – Avoiding the Pitfalls of a Military Response

National and international leaders, including the U.N. secretary general and his special representative in Somalia, have called for a surge of African troops to stem the threat of terrorism posed from within Somalia, where the militant al-Shabab is based. But hastily increasing military and counterterrorism efforts risks generating a political backlash, not least by feeding into al-Shabab’s propaganda.

A 'Most Desolate Place' Gets a New Lease on Life in Kenya

The people of northern Kenya currently face many daily hardships. Primarily pastoralists by livelihood, their cycle of life focuses on the basics – securing food and water for family and livestock, constructing shelter from the unforgiving sun, and finding sustenance when periodic droughts ravage the region. A 2011 drought affected millions of people, and tens of thousands of livestock died. Approximately 90 percent of the area’s population lives below the poverty line.

USIP Prevention Newsletter - September 2013

The September 2013 Prevention Newsletter features a Q&A with Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Holt on Peacekeeping and Atrocity Prevention, and highlights the role of Track 1.5 Dialogues as an instrument for conflict prevention.

In this Issue

  • PREVENTION IN PRACTICE:
    • Kenya 2013 Elections: Lessons Learned for Conflict Prevention
    • Egypt: Into the Abyss
    • The EU’s Focus on Prevention
    • Preventing Crisis in the Asia Pacific – USIP’s Track 1.5 Dialogues
  • PREVENTION TOOL IN THE SPOTLIGHT: Track 1.5 Dialogue
  • Q&A with Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Holt, On Peacekeeping and Atrocity Prevention

About This Newsletter

Wed, 09/04/2013 - 08:05
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Johnnie Carson

Johnnie
Carson
Senior Advisor to the President

Johnnie Carson is a senior advisor to the President of the U.S. Institute of Peace.

Please submit all media inquiries to interviews@usip.org or call 202.429.3869.

For all other inquiries, please call 202.457.1700.

Ambassador Johnnie Carson was sworn in as assistant secretary of state for the bureau of African affairs, on May 7, 2009. Prior to this he was the national intelligence officer for Africa at the National Intelligence Council, after serving as the senior vice president of the National Defense University in Washington, D.C. (2003-2006).

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USIP Meeting Examines Kenya’s Peaceful Elections

A May 21 panel at USIP assessed the reasons for a largely peaceful election this year in Kenya, where more than 1,000 people had been killed in post-election violence in 2007-08.

USIP Staff

The mostly peaceful Kenyan elections this year—a welcome contrast to the communal bloodletting that followed the 2007 contest—reflects structural reforms in Kenya’s political system, a new electoral alliance between former political foes and internationally supported work to prevent the return of mass violence, according to a panel of specialists who gathered at the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) on May 21.

Wed, 05/22/2013 - 17:34
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Articles & Analysis

November 15, 2013
A recent PEW Research Center report examined polls conducted between November 2011 and May 2012. It found that 52 percent of Muslims polled in Iraq, 44 percent in Afghanistan and 67 percent in Lebanon said Sunni-Shia tensions are a “very big or moderately big” problem in their country. The re-escalation of violence in Iraq this year likely would have increased the concern there if the polling were conducted today.

Our Work in the Field

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Classroom Courses

Instructor:
Peter van der Auweraert, Deborah H. Isser, John Bruce

This course will be offered again in the Fall of 2014

Disputes and grievances over land and property are implicated in practically all conflicts. This course provides policymakers and practitioners with analytical tools for assessing and addressing an array of complex land and property disputes, from competing ownership claims and restitution to customary land rights and illegal urban settlements. Drawing on case studies of peace operations and peacebuilding efforts, participants explore the range of entry points (humanitarian, human rights, state building, development, etc.) and options for dispute resolution and structural reform.

Drawing on case studies of peace operations and peacebuilding efforts, participants explore the range of entry points (humanitarian, human rights, state building, development, etc.) and options for

Publications

The September 2013 Prevention Newsletter features a Q&A with Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Holt on Peacekeeping and Atrocity Prevention, and highlights the role of Track 1.5 Dialogues as an instrument for conflict prevention.
By:
USIP Staff
A May 21 panel at USIP assessed the reasons for a largely peaceful election this year in Kenya, where more than 1,000 people had been killed in post-election violence in 2007-08.