Chile

Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto Pinchet, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990.  Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation. In January 2014, Chile assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term.

Women in Nonviolent Movements

Women’s meaningful involvement in civil resistance movements has shown to be a game changer. Examining movements in Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Liberia, the Palestinian territories, Poland, Syria, and the United States, this report advocates for the full engagement of women and their networks in nonviolent movements for a simple and compelling reason—because greater female inclusion leads to more sustainable peace. 

Marie A. Principe

Summary

  • Nonviolent movements are nearly twice as successful as violent ones in achieving their objectives.
  • Mass participation is part of what makes nonviolent movements so successful, particularly—and importantly—when women are included.
  • Women have historically been denied full access to political spaces usually reserved for, or dominated by, men.
  • All over the world, women have persisted in the face of inequalities to assume roles as strategists, organizers, and active participants in various nonviolent campaigns and movements.
Thu, 12/29/2016 - 13:59
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Civil Resistance and the Dynamics of Nonviolent Movements

The rise of nonviolent, people power movements around the world has become a defining feature of the 21st century. Organized citizen campaigns and movements using nonviolent methods are challenging formidable opponents: unaccountable governance, systemic corruption, institutionalized discrimination, environmental degradation, dictatorship, foreign military occupation and violent extremism. Their “weapons” are not guns or bombs but rather protests, boycotts, sit-ins, civil disobedience, building of alternative institutions and hundreds of other nonviolent tactics.

Triage, Bootstraps and Police Reform

USIP hosted an expert panel Nov. 16 to discuss police reform and the need to try new ways that fit the task. USIP also published a new Special Report, "Police Corruption: What Past Scandals Teach About Current Challenges," by David Bayley and USIP's Bob Perito.

Generic solutions to reforming police departments abroad will fail unless reformers plan approaches that are specific to the task at hand.

“To be successful in reducing corruption in police agencies abroad, it is necessary to prioritize the focus of anti-corruption activities and to think tactically about them,” said David Bayley, an expert on criminal justice and international police reform. “Context matters.”

Thu, 11/17/2011 - 12:09
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State and Soldier in Latin America: Redefining the Military's Role in Argentia, Brazil, and Chile

Peaceworks No. 10

Recent years have given rise to an intense debate about appropriate roles for Latin America's armed forces: Should they remain the guardians of political stability, or should they restrict themselves mainly to external defense?

Recent years have given rise to an intense debate about appropriate roles for Latin America's armed forces: Should they remain the guardians of political stability, or should they restrict themselves mainly to external defense? The two major challenges for the region's civilian leaders are to carve out missions for their militaries appropriate to both the security environment of the post–Cold War era and to civil-military relations in a democracy, and to provide ways militaries will effectively adopt these missions.

Wendy Hunter
Tue, 10/01/1996 - 09:00
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Commission of Inquiry: Chile 03

Commission of Inquiry: National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture
Duration:  2003 - 2005
Charter: Supreme Decree No. 1040
Commissioners: 8
Report: Public reports

 

Commission of Inquiry: National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture (Comisión Nacional Sobre Prisón Politica y Tortura, "Valech Commission")

Dates of Operation: September 2003 - June 1, 2005 (1 year, 9 months)
 

Mon, 09/01/2003 - 09:00
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Truth Commission: Chile 90

Truth Commission: National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation
Duration:  1990 - 1991
Charter: Supreme Decree No. 355
Commissioners: 8
Report: Public report

 

Truth Commission: National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation (Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación or the “Rettig Commission”)

Dates of Operation: May 1990 – February 1991 (9 months)
 

Tue, 05/01/1990 - 09:00
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Articles & Analysis

USIP hosted an expert panel Nov. 16 to discuss police reform and the need to try new ways that fit the task. USIP also published a new Special Report, "Police Corruption: What Past Scandals Teach...

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Online Courses

Daryn Cambridge, Maria Stephan & Althea Middleton-Detzner

This course provides a multidisciplinary perspective on nonviolent, civilian-based movements and campaigns that defend and obtain basic rights and justice around the world, and in so doing transform the global security environment.

The rise of nonviolent, people power movements around the world has become a defining feature of the 21st century.

Publications

By:
Marie A. Principe
Women’s meaningful involvement in civil resistance movements has shown to be a game changer. Examining movements in Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Liberia, the Palestinian territories, Poland, Syria, and...
By:
USIP Staff
Commission of Inquiry: National Commission on Political Imprisonment and TortureDuration:  2003 - 2005Charter: Supreme Decree No. 1040Commissioners: 8Report: Public reports